A Information on 12 Tuning Methods for Manufacturing-Prepared RAG Functions | by Leonie Monigatti | Dec, 2023

The way to enhance the efficiency of your Retrieval-Augmented Era (RAG) pipeline with these “hyperparameters” and tuning methods

Tuning Methods for Retrieval-Augmented Era Functions

Data Science is an experimental science. It begins with the “No Free Lunch Theorem,” which states that there isn’t any one-size-fits-all algorithm that works greatest for each downside. And it leads to information scientists utilizing experiment tracking systems to assist them tune the hyperparameters of their Machine Learning (ML) projects to achieve the best performance.

This text appears to be like at a Retrieval-Augmented Generation (RAG) pipeline by the eyes of an information scientist. It discusses potential “hyperparameters” you’ll be able to experiment with to enhance your RAG pipeline’s efficiency. Much like experimentation in Deep Studying, the place, e.g., information augmentation strategies will not be a hyperparameter however a knob you’ll be able to tune and experiment with, this text can even cowl totally different methods you’ll be able to apply, which aren’t per se hyperparameters.

This text covers the next “hyperparameters” sorted by their related stage. Within the ingestion stage of a RAG pipeline, you’ll be able to obtain efficiency enhancements by:

And within the inferencing stage (retrieval and generation), you’ll be able to tune:

Be aware that this text covers text-use circumstances of RAG. For multimodal RAG functions, totally different issues might apply.

The ingestion stage is a preparation step for constructing a RAG pipeline, much like the information cleansing and preprocessing steps in an ML pipeline. Normally, the ingestion stage consists of the next steps:

  1. Acquire information
  2. Chunk information
  3. Generate vector embeddings of chunks
  4. Retailer vector embeddings and chunks in a vector database
Documents are first chunked, then the chunks are embedded, and the embeddings are stored in the vector database
Ingestion stage of a RAG pipeline

This part discusses impactful strategies and hyperparameters that you may apply and tune to enhance the relevance of the retrieved contexts within the inferencing stage.

Information cleansing

Like every Information Science pipeline, the standard of your information closely impacts the result in your RAG pipeline [8, 9]. Earlier than shifting on to any of the next steps, be sure that your information meets the next standards:

  • Clear: Apply at the very least some primary information cleansing strategies generally utilized in Pure Language Processing, resembling ensuring all particular characters are encoded accurately.
  • Appropriate: Ensure your data is constant and factually correct to keep away from conflicting data complicated your LLM.


Chunking your paperwork is an important preparation step to your exterior information supply in a RAG pipeline that may affect the efficiency [1, 8, 9]. It’s a approach to generate logically coherent snippets of knowledge, often by breaking apart lengthy paperwork into smaller sections (however it might probably additionally mix smaller snippets into coherent paragraphs).

One consideration you must make is the alternative of the chunking approach. For instance, in LangChain, different text splitters break up up paperwork by totally different logics, resembling by characters, tokens, and so on. This depends upon the kind of information you have got. For instance, you have to to make use of totally different chunking strategies in case your enter information is code vs. if it’s a Markdown file.

The perfect size of your chunk (chunk_size) depends upon your use case: In case your use case is query answering, you might want shorter particular chunks, but when your use case is summarization, you might want longer chunks. Moreover, if a bit is just too quick, it may not comprise sufficient context. Alternatively, if a bit is just too lengthy, it would comprise an excessive amount of irrelevant data.

Moreover, you have to to consider a “rolling window” between chunks (overlap) to introduce some further context.

Embedding fashions

Embedding fashions are on the core of your retrieval. The high quality of your embeddings closely impacts your retrieval outcomes [1, 4]. Normally, the upper the dimensionality of the generated embeddings, the upper the precision of your embeddings.

For an thought of what various embedding fashions can be found, you’ll be able to have a look at the Massive Text Embedding Benchmark (MTEB) Leaderboard, which covers 164 textual content embedding fashions (on the time of this writing).

Whereas you need to use general-purpose embedding fashions out-of-the-box, it might make sense to fine-tune your embedding mannequin to your particular use case in some circumstances to keep away from out-of-domain points in a while [9]. In accordance with experiments performed by LlamaIndex, fine-tuning your embedding mannequin can result in a 5–10% performance increase in retrieval evaluation metrics [2].

Be aware that you simply can not fine-tune all embedding fashions (e.g., OpenAI’s text-ebmedding-ada-002 can’t be fine-tuned at the moment).


Once you retailer vector embeddings in a vector database, some vector databases allow you to retailer them along with metadata (or information that’s not vectorized). Annotating vector embeddings with metadata may be useful for extra post-processing of the search outcomes, resembling metadata filtering [1, 3, 8, 9]. For instance, you might add metadata, such because the date, chapter, or subchapter reference.


If the metadata just isn’t enough sufficient to offer further data to separate several types of context logically, you might need to experiment with a number of indexes [1, 9]. For instance, you need to use totally different indexes for several types of paperwork. Be aware that you’ll have to incorporate some index routing at retrieval time [1, 9]. In case you are inquisitive about a deeper dive into metadata and separate collections, you may need to study extra in regards to the idea of native multi-tenancy.

Indexing algorithms

To allow lightning-fast similarity search at scale, vector databases and vector indexing libraries use an Approximate Nearest Neighbor (ANN) search as a substitute of a k-nearest neighbor (kNN) search. Because the title suggests, ANN algorithms approximate the closest neighbors and thus may be much less exact than a kNN algorithm.

There are totally different ANN algorithms you might experiment with, resembling Facebook Faiss (clustering), Spotify Annoy (timber), Google ScaNN (vector compression), and HNSWLIB (proximity graphs). Additionally, many of those ANN algorithms have some parameters you might tune, resembling ef, efConstruction, and maxConnections for HNSW [1].

Moreover, you’ll be able to allow vector compression for these indexing algorithms. Analogous to ANN algorithms, you’ll lose some precision with vector compression. Nevertheless, relying on the selection of the vector compression algorithm and its tuning, you’ll be able to optimize this as properly.

Nevertheless, in follow, these parameters are already tuned by analysis groups of vector databases and vector indexing libraries throughout benchmarking experiments and never by builders of RAG techniques. Nevertheless, if you wish to experiment with these parameters to squeeze out the final bits of efficiency, I like to recommend this text as a place to begin:

The primary parts of the RAG pipeline are the retrieval and the generative parts. This part primarily discusses methods to enhance the retrieval (Query transformations, retrieval parameters, advanced retrieval strategies, and re-ranking models) as that is the extra impactful element of the 2. However it additionally briefly touches on some methods to enhance the technology (LLM and prompt engineering).

Standard RAG schema
Inference stage of a RAG pipeline

Question transformations

For the reason that search question to retrieve further context in a RAG pipeline can be embedded into the vector house, its phrasing can even affect the search outcomes. Thus, in case your search question doesn’t lead to passable search outcomes, you’ll be able to experiment with numerous query transformation techniques [5, 8, 9], resembling:

  • Rephrasing: Use an LLM to rephrase the question and check out once more.
  • Hypothetical Doc Embeddings (HyDE): Use an LLM to generate a hypothetical response to the search question and use each for retrieval.
  • Sub-queries: Break down longer queries into a number of shorter queries.

Retrieval parameters

The retrieval is a vital part of the RAG pipeline. The primary consideration is whether or not semantic search will likely be enough to your use case or if you wish to experiment with hybrid search.

Within the latter case, you must experiment with weighting the aggregation of sparse and dense retrieval strategies in hybrid search [1, 4, 9]. Thus, tuning the parameter alpha, which controls the weighting between semantic (alpha = 1) and keyword-based search (alpha = 0), will grow to be crucial.

Additionally, the variety of search outcomes to retrieve will play an important position. The variety of retrieved contexts will affect the size of the used context window (see Prompt Engineering). Additionally, in case you are utilizing a re-ranking mannequin, you must contemplate what number of contexts to enter to the mannequin (see Re-ranking models).

Be aware, whereas the used similarity measure for semantic search is a parameter you’ll be able to change, you shouldn’t experiment with it however as a substitute set it in response to the used embedding mannequin (e.g., text-embedding-ada-002 helps cosine similarity or multi-qa-MiniLM-l6-cos-v1 helps cosine similarity, dot product, and Euclidean distance).

Superior retrieval methods

This part may technically be its personal article. For this overview, we are going to maintain this as concise as doable. For an in-depth clarification of the next strategies, I like to recommend this DeepLearning.AI course:

The underlying thought of this part is that the chunks for retrieval shouldn’t essentially be the identical chunks used for the technology. Ideally, you’d embed smaller chunks for retrieval (see Chunking) however retrieve larger contexts. [7]

  • Sentence-window retrieval: Don’t simply retrieve the related sentence, however the window of applicable sentences earlier than and after the retrieved one.
  • Auto-merging retrieval: The paperwork are organized in a tree-like construction. At question time, separate however associated, smaller chunks may be consolidated into a bigger context.

Re-ranking fashions

Whereas semantic search retrieves context based mostly on its semantic similarity to the search question, “most comparable” doesn’t essentially imply “most related”. Re-ranking fashions, resembling Cohere’s Rerank mannequin, may also help get rid of irrelevant search outcomes by computing a rating for the relevance of the question for every retrieved context [1, 9].

“most comparable” doesn’t essentially imply “most related”

In case you are utilizing a re-ranker mannequin, you might have to re-tune the variety of search outcomes for the enter of the re-ranker and the way lots of the reranked outcomes you need to feed into the LLM.

As with the embedding models, you might need to experiment with fine-tuning the re-ranker to your particular use case.


The LLM is the core element for producing the response. Equally to the embedding fashions, there’s a variety of LLMs you’ll be able to select from relying in your necessities, resembling open vs. proprietary fashions, inferencing prices, context size, and so on. [1]

As with the embedding models or re-ranking models, you might need to experiment with fine-tuning the LLM to your particular use case to include particular wording or tone of voice.

Immediate engineering

The way you phrase or engineer your immediate will considerably affect the LLM’s completion [1, 8, 9].

Please base your reply solely on the search outcomes and nothing else!
Essential! Your reply MUST be grounded within the search outcomes supplied. 
Please clarify why your reply is grounded within the search outcomes!

Moreover, utilizing few-shot examples in your immediate can enhance the standard of the completions.

As talked about in Retrieval parameters, the variety of contexts fed into the immediate is a parameter it’s best to experiment with [1]. Whereas the efficiency of your RAG pipeline can enhance with growing related context, you too can run right into a “Misplaced within the Center” [6] impact the place related context just isn’t acknowledged as such by the LLM whether it is positioned in the midst of many contexts.

As an increasing number of builders acquire expertise with prototyping RAG pipelines, it turns into extra vital to debate methods to convey RAG pipelines to production-ready performances. This text mentioned totally different “hyperparameters” and different knobs you’ll be able to tune in a RAG pipeline in response to the related phases:

This text lined the next methods within the ingestion stage:

  • Data cleaning: Guarantee information is clear and proper.
  • Chunking: Alternative of chunking approach, chunk measurement (chunk_size) and chunk overlap (overlap).
  • Embedding models: Alternative of the embedding mannequin, incl. dimensionality, and whether or not to fine-tune it.
  • Metadata: Whether or not to make use of metadata and selection of metadata.
  • Multi-indexing: Resolve whether or not to make use of a number of indexes for various information collections.
  • Indexing algorithms: Alternative and tuning of ANN and vector compression algorithms may be tuned however are often not tuned by practitioners.

And the next methods within the inferencing stage (retrieval and generation):

  • Query transformations: Experiment with rephrasing, HyDE, or sub-queries.
  • Retrieval parameters: Alternative of search approach (alpha when you’ve got hybrid search enabled) and the variety of retrieved search outcomes.
  • Advanced retrieval strategies: Whether or not to make use of superior retrieval methods, resembling sentence-window or auto-merging retrieval.
  • Re-ranking models: Whether or not to make use of a re-ranking mannequin, alternative of re-ranking mannequin, variety of search outcomes to enter into the re-ranking mannequin, and whether or not to fine-tune the re-ranking mannequin.
  • LLMs: Alternative of LLM and whether or not to fine-tune it.
  • Prompt engineering: Experiment with totally different phrasing and few-shot examples.

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