Ant Colony Optimization in Motion | by Hennie de More durable | Sep, 2023

A working ant. Picture created with Dall-E 2 by the writer.

Fixing optimization issues and enhancing outcomes with ACO in Python

Welcome again! In my earlier submit, I launched the basics of Ant Colony Optimization (ACO). On this installment, we’ll delve into implementing the ACO algorithm from scratch to sort out two distinct drawback varieties.

The issues we’ll be addressing are the Touring Salesman Downside (TSP) and the Quadratic Project Downside (QAP). Why these two? Properly, the TSP is a basic problem, and ACO occurs to be an efficient algorithm for locating probably the most cost-efficient path via a graph. Then again, the Quadratic Project Downside represents a distinct class of issues associated to optimizing the association of things, and on this submit, I purpose to show that ACO could be a beneficial instrument for fixing such assignment-related issues as nicely. This versatility makes the ACO algorithm relevant to a variety of issues. Lastly, I’ll share some suggestions for reaching improved options extra quickly.

TSP is easy to explain however can pose a major problem find an answer. Right here’s the fundamental definition: you’re tasked with discovering the shortest route that visits all nodes in a graph. This drawback falls into the class of NP-hard problems, which means that for those who try and discover all attainable routes, it could possibly take an impractical period of time to seek out the answer. As an alternative, a more practical strategy is to hunt a high-quality resolution inside an inexpensive timeframe, and that’s exactly what we’ll accomplish utilizing ACO.

Downside Definition

With the next code, we are able to create a TSP occasion with a given variety of nodes:

import itertools
import math
import random
from typing import Tuple

import networkx as nx
import networkx.algorithms.shortest_paths.dense as nxalg

class TSP:
Creates a TSP drawback with a sure variety of nodes
def __init__(self, nodes: int = 30, dimensions: Tuple[int, int] = (1000, 1000), seed: int = 5):
if seed:

graph = nx.Graph()
nodes_dict = dict()

for i in vary(nodes):
nodes_dict[i] =…

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