Constructing LLMs-Powered Apps with OPL Stack | by Wen Yang | Apr, 2023

Midjourney Immediate: a woman constructing a lego bridge from a number of blocks
  1. What’s the OPL stack?
  2. Easy methods to use the OPL to construct chatGPT with area information? (Important parts with code walkthrough)
  3. Manufacturing concerns
  4. Widespread misconceptions
Picture created by the writer
  1. LLMs hallucination: chatGPT will typically present mistaken solutions with overconfidence. One of many underlying causes is that these language fashions are skilled to foretell the subsequent phrase very successfully, or the subsequent token to be exact. Given an enter textual content, chatGPT will return phrases with excessive chance, which doesn’t imply that chatGPT has reasoning capacity.
  2. Much less up-to-date information: chatGPT’s coaching information is restricted to web information previous to Sep 2021. Due to this fact, it should produce much less fascinating solutions in case your questions are about latest developments or subjects.
  • OpenAI:
    – gives API entry to highly effective LLMs resembling chatGPT and gpt-4
    – gives embedding fashions to transform textual content to embeddings.
  • Pinecone: it gives embedding vector storage, semantic similarity comparability, and quick retrieval.
  • Langchain: it includes 6 modules (Fashions, Prompts, Indexes, Reminiscence, Chains and Brokers).
    Fashions provides flexibility in embedding fashions, chat fashions, and LLMs, together with however not restricted to OpenAI’s choices. You too can use different fashions from Hugging Face like BLOOM and FLAN-T5.
    Reminiscence : there are a selection of the way to permit chatbots to recollect previous dialog reminiscence. From my expertise, entity reminiscence works nicely and is environment friendly.
    Chains : In the event you’re new to Langchain, Chains is a superb place to begin. It follows a pipeline-like construction to course of person enter, choose the LLM mannequin, apply a Immediate template, and search the related context from the information base.
  • chatGPT: allows you to chat with chatGPT instantly, and the format is just like a Q&A app, the place you obtain a single enter and output at a time.
  • chatOutside: means that you can chat with a model of chatGPT with professional information of Out of doors actions and developments. The format is extra like a chatbot model, the place all messages are recorded because the dialog progresses. I’ve additionally included a piece that gives supply hyperlinks, which may increase person confidence and is all the time helpful to have.
  • Step 1: Construct an Outdoors Data Base in Pinecone
  • Step 2: Use Langchain for Query & Answering Service
  • Step 3: Construct our app in Streamlit

Step 1: Construct an Outdoors Data Base in Pinecone

  • Step 1.1: I linked to our Outdoors catalog database and chosen articles revealed between January 1st, 2022, and March twenty ninth, 2023. This offered us with roughly 20,000 information.
pattern information preview from Outdoors
  • Step 1.2: convert the above dataframe to a listing of dictionaries to make sure information may be upserted accurately into Pinecone.
# Convert dataframe to a listing of dict for Pinecone information upsert
information = df_item.to_dict('information')
  • Step 1.3: Break up the content materialinto smaller chunks utilizing Langchain’s RecursiveCharacterTextSplitter . The advantage of breaking down paperwork into smaller chunks is twofold:
    – A typical article is likely to be greater than 1000 characters, which could be very lengthy. Think about we wish to retrieve top-3 articles as context to immediate the chatGPT, we may simply hit the 4000 token restrict.
    – Smaller chunks present extra related data, leading to higher context to immediate chatGPT.
from langchain.text_splitter import RecursiveCharacterTextSplitter

text_splitter = RecursiveCharacterTextSplitter(
separators=["nn", "n", " ", ""]

Break the content material into a number of chunks
  • Step 1.4: Upsert information to Pinecone. The beneath code is tailored from James Briggs’s fantastic tutorial.
import pinecone
from langchain.embeddings.openai import OpenAIEmbeddings

# 0. Initialize Pinecone Consumer
with open('./credentials.yml', 'r') as file:
cre = yaml.safe_load(file)
# pinecone API
pinecone_api_key = cre['pinecone']['apikey']

pinecone.init(api_key=pinecone_api_key, surroundings="us-west1-gcp")

# 1. Create a brand new index
index_name = 'outside-chatgpt'

# 2. Use OpenAI's ada-002 as embedding mannequin
model_name = 'text-embedding-ada-002'
embed = OpenAIEmbeddings(
embed_dimension = 1536

# 3. examine if index already exists (it should not if that is first time)
if index_name not in pinecone.list_indexes():
# if doesn't exist, create index

# 3. Hook up with index
index = pinecone.Index(index_name)

# If utilizing terminal
from import tqdm

# If utilizing in Jupyter pocket book
from tqdm.autonotebook import tqdm

from uuid import uuid4

batch_limit = 100

texts = []
metadatas = []

for i, file in enumerate(tqdm(information)):
# 1. Get metadata fields for this file
metadata = {
'item_uuid': str(file['id']),
'supply': file['url'],
'title': file['title']
# 2. Create chunks from the file textual content
record_texts = text_splitter.split_text(file['content'])

# 3. Create particular person metadata dicts for every chunk
record_metadatas = [{
"chunk": j, "text": text, **metadata
} for j, text in enumerate(record_texts)]

# 4. Append these to present batches

# 5. Particular case: if now we have reached the batch_limit we are able to add texts
if len(texts) >= batch_limit:
ids = [str(uuid4()) for _ in range(len(texts))]
embeds = embed.embed_documents(texts)
index.upsert(vectors=zip(ids, embeds, metadatas))
texts = []
metadatas = []

After upserting information into Pinecone

Step 2: Use Langchain for Query & Answering Service

Information circulation in OPL stack
  • The person asks a query: “What are one of the best trainers in 2023?”.
  • The query is transformed into embedding utilizing the ada-002mannequin.
  • The person query embedding is in contrast with all vectors saved in Pinecone utilizing similarity_searchperform, which retrieves the highest 3 textual content chunks which can be probably to reply the query.
  • Langchain then passes the highest 3 textual content chunks as context , together with the person query to gpt-3.5 ( ChatCompletion ) to generate the solutions.
from langchain.vectorstores import Pinecone
from langchain.chains import VectorDBQAWithSourcesChain
from langchain.embeddings.openai import OpenAIEmbeddings

# 1. Specify Pinecone as Vectorstore
# =======================================
# 1.1 get pinecone index identify
index = pinecone.Index(index_name) #'outside-chatgpt'

# 1.2 specify embedding mannequin
model_name = 'text-embedding-ada-002'
embed = OpenAIEmbeddings(

# 1.3 gives text_field
text_field = "textual content"

vectorstore = Pinecone(
index, embed.embed_query, text_field

# 2. Wrap the chain as a perform
qa_with_sources = VectorDBQAWithSourcesChain.from_chain_type(

Langchain VectorDBQA with supply

Step 3: Construct our app in Streamlit

import pinecone
import streamlit as st
from langchain.chains import VectorDBQAWithSourcesChain
from langchain.chat_models import ChatOpenAI
from langchain.vectorstores import Pinecone
from langchain.embeddings.openai import OpenAIEmbeddings

# ------OpenAI: LLM---------------
OPENAI_API_KEY = st.secrets and techniques["OPENAI_KEY"]
llm = ChatOpenAI(

# ------OpenAI: Embed model-------------
model_name = 'text-embedding-ada-002'
embed = OpenAIEmbeddings(

# --- Pinecone ------
pinecone_api_key = st.secrets and techniques["PINECONE_API_KEY"]
pinecone.init(api_key=pinecone_api_key, surroundings="us-west1-gcp")
index_name = "outside-chatgpt"
index = pinecone.Index(index_name)
text_field = "textual content"
vectorstore = Pinecone(index, embed.embed_query, text_field)

# ======= Langchain ChatDBQA with supply chain =======
def qa_with_sources(question):
qa = VectorDBQAWithSourcesChain.from_chain_type(

response = qa(question)
return response

import os
import openai
from PIL import Picture
from streamlit_chat import message
from utils import *

openai.api_key = st.secrets and techniques["OPENAI_KEY"]
# For Langchain
os.environ["OPENAI_API_KEY"] = openai.api_key

# ==== Part 1: Streamlit Settings ======
with st.sidebar:
st.markdown("# Welcome to chatOutside 🙌")
"**chatOutside** means that you can speak to model of **chatGPT** n"
"that has entry to newest Outdoors content material! n"
"Not like chatGPT, chatOutside cannot make stuff upn"
"and can reply from Outdoors information base. n"
st.markdown("👩‍🏫 Developer: Wen Yang")
st.markdown("# Beneath The Hood 🎩 🐇")
st.markdown("Easy methods to Forestall Massive Language Mannequin (LLM) hallucination?")
st.markdown("- **Pinecone**: vector database for Outdoors information")
st.markdown("- **Langchain**: to recollect the context of the dialog")

# Homepage title
st.title("chatOutside: Outdoors + ChatGPT")
# Hero Picture
picture ='VideoBkg_08.jpg')
st.picture(picture, caption='Get Outdoors!')

st.header("chatGPT 🤖")

# ====== Part 2: ChatGPT solely ======
def chatgpt(immediate):
res = openai.ChatCompletion.create(
{"role": "system",
"content": "You are a friendly and helpful assistant. "
"Answer the question as truthfully as possible. "
"If unsure, say you don't know."},
{"role": "user", "content": prompt},

return res

input_gpt = st.text_input(label='Chat right here! 💬')
output_gpt = st.text_area(label="Answered by chatGPT:",
worth=chatgpt(input_gpt), peak=200)
# ========= Finish of Part 2 ===========

# ========== Part 3: chatOutside ============================
st.header("chatOutside 🏕️")

def chatoutside(question):
# begin chat with chatOutside
response = qa_with_sources(question)
reply = response['answer']
supply = response['sources']

besides Exception as e:
print("I am afraid your query failed! That is the error: ")
return None

if len(reply) > 0:
return reply, supply

return None
# ============================================================

# ========== Part 4. Show ChatOutside in chatbot model ===========
if 'generated' not in st.session_state:
st.session_state['generated'] = []

if 'previous' not in st.session_state:
st.session_state['past'] = []

if 'supply' not in st.session_state:
st.session_state['source'] = []

def clear_text():
st.session_state["input"] = ""

# We'll get the person's enter by calling the get_text perform
def get_text():
input_text = st.text_input('Chat right here! 💬', key="enter")
return input_text

user_input = get_text()

if user_input:
# supply comprise urls from Outdoors
output, supply = chatoutside(user_input)

# retailer the output

# Show supply urls

if st.session_state['generated']:
for i in vary(len(st.session_state['generated'])-1, -1, -1):
message(st.session_state["generated"][i], key=str(i))
message(st.session_state['past'][i], is_user=True,
avatar_style="big-ears", key=str(i) + '_user')

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