Lists, Tuples, Dictionaries, And Information Frames in Python: The Full Information | by Federico Trotta | Might, 2023

Definition and creation examples

In Python, an inventory is a set of ordered components that may be of any kind: strings, integers, floats, and many others…

To create an inventory, the objects have to be inserted between sq. brackets and separated by a comma. For instance, right here’s how we will create an inventory of integers:

# Create record of integers
my_integers = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6]

However lists also can have “blended” varieties saved inside them. For instance, let’s create an inventory with each integers and strings:

# Create a blended record
mixed_list = [1, 3, "dad", 101, "apple"]

To create an inventory, we will additionally use the Python built-in operate record(). That is how we will use it:

# Create record and print it
my_list = record((1, 2, 3, 4, 5))


[1, 2, 3, 4, 5]

This built-in operate could be very helpful in some explicit instances. For instance, let’s say we wish to create an inventory of numbers within the vary (1–10). Right here’s how we will accomplish that:

# Create an inventory in a spread
my_list = record(vary(1, 10))


[1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9]

Do not forget that the built-in operate "vary" contains the primary worth,
and excludes the final one.

Now, let’s see how we will manipulate lists.

Lists manipulation

Because of the truth that lists are mutable, we’ve got plenty of potentialities to control them. For instance, let’s say we’ve got an inventory of names, however we made a mistake and we wish to change one. Right here’s how we will accomplish that:

# Listing of names
names = ["James", "Richard", "Simon", "Elizabeth", "Tricia"]
# Change the flawed identify
names[0] = "Alexander"
# Print record


['Alexander', 'Richard', 'Simon', 'Elizabeth', 'Tricia']

So, within the above instance, we’ve modified the primary identify of the record from James to Alexander.


In case you did not know, be aware that in Python the primary component
is at all times accessed by "0", relating to of the kind we're manipulating.
So, within the above instance, "names[0]" represents the primary component
of the record "names".

Now, suppose we’ve forgotten a reputation. We are able to add it to our record like so:

# Listing of names
names = ["James", "Richard", "Simon", "Elizabeth", "Tricia"]
# Append one other identify
# Print record


['James', 'Richard', 'Simon', 'Elizabeth', 'Tricia', 'Alexander']

If we have to concatenate two lists, we’ve got two potentialities: the concatenate methodology or the prolong()one. Let’s see them:

# Create list1
list1 = [1, 2, 3]
# Create list2
list2 = [4, 5, 6]
# Concatenate lists
concatenated_list = list1 + list2
# Print concatenated record


[1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6]

So, this methodology creates an inventory that’s the sum of different lists. Let’s see the prolong() methodology:

# Create list1
list1 = [1, 2, 3]
# Create list2
list2 = [4, 5, 6]
# Prolong list1 with list2
# Print new list1


[1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6]

As we will see, the outcomes are the identical, however the syntax is totally different. This methodology extends list1 with list2.

If we wish to take away components, we’ve got two potentialities: we will use the take away() methodology or del. Let’s see them:

# Create record
my_list = [1, 2, 3, 'four', 5.0]
# Take away one component and print
my_list.take away('4')


[1, 2, 3, 5.0]

Let’s see the opposite methodology:

# Create record
my_list = [1, 2, 3, 'four', 5.0]
# Delete one component and print
del my_list[3]


[1, 2, 3, 5.0]

So, we get the identical outcomes with each strategies, however take away() provides us the chance to explicitly write the component to take away, whereas del must entry the place of the component of the record.


Should you've gained familiarity with accessing positions, within the above
instance my_list[3] = '4'. As a result of, bear in mind: in Python we begin counting
positions from 0.

Listing comprehension

There are numerous instances the place we have to create lists ranging from current lists, typically making use of some filters to the present information. To take action, we’ve got two potentialities:

  1. We use loops and statements.
  2. We use record comprehension.

Virtually, they’re each the identical option to write the identical factor, however record comprehension is extra concise and stylish.

However earlier than we focus on these strategies, you could want a deep overview of loops and statements. Listed here are a few articles I wrote prior to now which will assist you to:

Now, let’s see a few examples utilizing loops and statements instantly.

Suppose we’ve got a buying record. We would like our program to print that we love one fruit and that we don’t just like the others on the record. Right here’s how we will accomplish that:

# Create buying record
shopping_list = ["banana", "apple", "orange", "lemon"]
# Print the one I like
for fruit in shopping_list:
if fruit == "lemon":
print(f"I really like {fruit}")
print(f"I do not like {fruit}")


I do not like banana
I do not like apple
I do not like orange
I really like lemon

One other instance may very well be the next. Suppose we’ve got an inventory of numbers and we wish to print simply the even ones. Right here’s how we will accomplish that:

# Create record
numbers = [1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8]
# Create empty record
even_list = []
# Print even numbers
for even in numbers:
if even %2 == 0:



[2, 4, 6, 8]

In case you are not conversant in the sintax %2 == 0 it implies that we're
dividing a quantity by 2 and anticipate a reminder of 0. In different phrases,
we're asking our program to intercept the even numbers.

So, within the above instance, we’ve created an inventory of numbers. Then, we’ve created an empty record that’s used after the loop to append all of the even numbers. This manner, we’ve created an inventory of even numbers from an inventory with “common” numbers.

Now… this manner of making new lists with loops and statements is a bit “heavy”. I imply: it requires numerous code. We are able to achieve the identical ends in a extra concise manner utilizing record comprehension.

For instance, to create an inventory with even numbers we will use record comprehension like so:

# Create record
numbers = [1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8]
# Create record of even numbers
even_numbers = [even for even in numbers if even %2 == 0]
# Print even record


[2, 4, 6, 8]

So, record comprehension creates instantly a brand new record and we outline the situation inside it. As we will see, we achieve the identical outcome as earlier than, however in only one line of code: not dangerous!

Now, let’s create an inventory with feedback on the fruit I really like (and the fruit I don’t) with record comprehension:

# Create delivery record
shopping_list = ["banana", "apple", "orange", "lemon"]
# Create commented record and print it
commented_list = [f"I love {fruit}" if fruit == "banana"
else f"I don't like {fruit}"
for fruit in shopping_list]


['I love banana', "I don't like apple", "I don't like orange",
"I don't like lemon"]

So, we gained the identical outcome as earlier than, however with only a line of code. The one distinction is that right here we’ve printed an inventory (as a result of record comprehension creates one!), whereas earlier than we simply printed the outcomes.

Listing of lists

There may be additionally the chance to create lists of lists, which might be lists nested into one record. This chance is helpful once we wish to signify listed information as a novel record.

For instance, think about we wish to create an inventory of scholars and their grades. We might create one thing like that:

# Create lis with college students and their grades
college students = [
["John", [85, 92, 78, 90]],
["Emily", [77, 80, 85, 88]],
["Michael", [90, 92, 88, 94]],
["Sophia", [85, 90, 92, 87]]

It is a helpful notation if, for instance, we wish to calculate the imply grade for every pupil. We are able to do it like so:

# Iterate over the record
for pupil in college students:
identify = pupil[0] # Entry names
grades = pupil[1] # Entry grades
average_grade = sum(grades) / len(grades) # Calculate imply grades
print(f"{identify}'s common grade is {average_grade:.2f}")


John's common grade is 86.25
Emily's common grade is 82.50
Michael's common grade is 91.00
Sophia's common grade is 88.50

Tuples are one other information construction kind in Python. They’re outlined with spherical brackets and, as lists, can comprise any information kind separated by a comma. So, for instance, we will outline a tuple like so:

# Outline a tuple and print it
my_tuple = (1, 3.0, "John")


(1, 3.0, 'John')

The distinction between a tuple and an inventory is {that a} tuple is immutable. Because of this the weather of a tuple can’t be modified. So, for instance, if we attempt to append a price to a tuple we get an error:

# Create a tuple with names
names = ("James", "Jhon", "Elizabeth")
# Attempt to append a reputation


AttributeError: 'tuple' object has no attribute 'append'

So, since we will’t modify tuples, they’re helpful once we need our information to be immutable; for instance, in conditions the place we don’t wish to make errors.

A sensible instance will be the cart of an e-commerce. We might want this type of information to be immutable in order that we don’t make any errors when manipulating it. Think about somebody purchased a shirt, a pair of footwear, and a watch from our e-commerce. We might report this information with amount and value into one tuple:

# Create a chart as a tuple
cart = (
("Shirt", 2, 19.99),
("Footwear", 1, 59.99),
("Watch", 1, 99.99)

After all, to be exact, this can be a tuple of tuples.

Since lists are immutable, they’re extra environment friendly by way of efficiency, that means they save our pc’s sources. However in relation to manipulation, we will use the very same code as we’ve seen for lists, so we gained’t write it once more.

Lastly, equally to lists, we will create a tuple with the built-in operate tuple() like so:

# Create a tuple in a spread
my_tuple = tuple(vary(1, 10))


(1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9)

A dictionary is a option to retailer information which might be coupled as keys and values. That is how we will create one:

# Create a dictionary
my_dictionary = {'key_1':'value_1', 'key_2':'value_2'}

So, we create a dictionary with curly brackets and we retailer in it a few keys and values separated by a colon. The {couples} keys-values are then separated by a comma.

Now, let’s see how we will manipulate dictionaries.

Dictionaries manipulation

Each keys and values of a dictionary could be of any kind: strings, integers, or floats. So, for instance, we will create a dictionary like so:

# Create a dictionary of numbers and print it
numbers = {1:'one', 2:'two', 3:'three'}


{1: 'one', 2: 'two', 3: 'three'}

However we will create one additionally like that:

# Create a dictionary of numbers and print it
numbers = {'one':1, 'two':2.0, 3:'three'}


{'one': 1, 'two': 2.0, 3: 'three'}

Selecting the kind for values and keys depends upon the issue we have to clear up. Anyway, contemplating the dictionary we’ve seen earlier than, we will entry each values and keys like so:

# Entry values and keys
keys = record(numbers.keys())
values = tuple(numbers.values())
# Print values and keys
print(f"The keys are: {keys}")
print(f"The values are: {values}")


The keys are: ['one', 'two', 3]
The values are: (1, 2.0, 'three')

So, if our dictionary is known as numbers we entry its key with numbers.keys(). And with numbers.values() we entry its values. Additionally, be aware that we’ve got created an inventory with the keys and a tuple with the values utilizing the notation we’ve seen earlier than.

After all, we will additionally iterate over dictionaries. For instance, suppose we wish to print the values which might be larger than a sure threshold:

# Create a buying record with fruits and costs
shopping_list = {'banana':2, 'apple':1, 'orange':1.5}
# Iterate over the values
for values in shopping_list.values():
# Values larger than threshold
if values > 1:



Like lists, dictionaries are mutable. So, if we wish to add a price to a dictionary we’ve got to outline the important thing and the worth so as to add to it. We are able to do it like so:

# Create the dictionary
particular person = {'identify': 'John', 'age': 30}
# Add worth and key and print
particular person['city'] = 'New York'
print(particular person)


{'identify': 'John', 'age': 30, 'metropolis': 'New York'}

To change a price of a dictionary, we have to entry its key:

# Create a dictionary
particular person = {'identify': 'John', 'age': 30}
# Change age worth and print
particular person['age'] = 35
print(particular person)


{'identify': 'John', 'age': 35}

To delete a pair key-value from a dictionary, we have to entry its key:

# Create dictionary
particular person = {'identify': 'John', 'age': 30}
# Delete age and print
del particular person['age']
print(particular person)


{'identify': 'John'}

Nested dictionaries

We’ve seen earlier than that we will create lists of lists and tuples of tuples. Equally, we will create nested dictionaries. Suppose, for instance, we wish to create a dictionary to retailer the information associated to a category of scholars. We are able to do it like so:

# Create a classroom dictionary
classroom = {
'student_1': {
'identify': 'Alice',
'age': 15,
'grades': [90, 85, 92]
'student_2': {
'identify': 'Bob',
'age': 16,
'grades': [80, 75, 88]
'student_3': {
'identify': 'Charlie',
'age': 14,
'grades': [95, 92, 98]

So, the information of every pupil are represented as a dictionary and all of the dictionaries are saved in a novel dictionary, representing the classroom. As we will see, the values of a dictionary may even be lists (or tuples, if we’d like). On this case, we’ve used lists to retailer the grades of every pupil.

To print the values of 1 pupil, we simply must keep in mind that, from the angle of the classroom dictionary, we have to entry the important thing and, on this case, the keys are the scholars themselves. This implies we will do it like so:

# Entry student_3 and print
student_3 = classroom['student_3']


{'identify': 'Charlie', 'age': 14, 'grades': [95, 92, 98]}

Dictionaries comprehension

Dictionary comprehension permits us to create dictionaries concisely and effectively. It’s just like record comprehension however, as an alternative of making an inventory, it creates a dictionary.

Suppose we’ve got a dictionary the place we’ve got saved some objects and their costs. We wish to know the objects that price lower than a sure threshold. We are able to do it like so:

# Outline preliminary dictionary
merchandise = {'footwear': 100, 'watch': 50, 'smartphone': 250, 'pill': 120}
# Outline threshold
max_price = 150
# Filter for threshold
products_to_buy = {fruit: value for fruit, value in merchandise.objects() if value <= max_price}
# Print filtered dictionary


{'footwear': 100, 'watch': 50, 'pill': 120}

So, the syntax to make use of dictionary comprehension is:

new_dict = {key:worth for key, worth in iterable}

The place iterable is any iterable Python object. It may be an inventory, a tuple, one other dictionary, and many others…

Creating dictionaries with the “normal” methodology would require numerous code, with circumstances, loops, and statements. As an alternative, as we will see, dictionary comprehension permits us to create a dictionary, primarily based on circumstances, with only one line of code.

Dictionary comprehension is very helpful when we have to create a dictionary retrieving information from different sources or information buildings. For instance, say we have to create a dictionary retrieving values from two lists. We are able to do it like so:

# Outline names and ages in lists
names = ['John', 'Jane', 'Bob', 'Alice']
cities = ['New York', 'Boston', 'London', 'Rome']
# Create dictionary from lists and print outcomes
name_age_dict = {identify: metropolis for identify, metropolis in zip(names, cities)}


{'John': 'New York', 'Jane': 'Boston', 'Bob': 'London', 'Alice': 'Rome'}

An information body is the illustration of tabular information. Picture from the Panda’s web site right here:

An information body is a two-dimensional information construction consisting of columns and rows. So, it’s in some way just like a spreadsheet or a desk in an SQL database. They’ve the next traits:

  1. Every row represents a person remark or document.
  2. Every column represents a variable or a particular attribute of the information.
  3. They’ve labeled rows (referred to as indexes) and columns, making it straightforward to control the information.
  4. The columns can comprise various kinds of information, like integers, strings, or floats. Even a single column can comprise totally different information varieties.

Whereas information frames are the everyday information construction used within the context of Information Evaluation and Information Science, it’s not unusual {that a} Python Software program Engineer may have to control a knowledge body, and because of this we’re having an outline of information frames.

Right here’s how a knowledge body seems:

An information body. Picture by Creator.

So, on the left (within the blue rectangle) we will see the indexes, that means the row counts. We are able to then see {that a} information body can comprise various kinds of information. Specifically, the column “Age” incorporates totally different information varieties (one string and two integers).

Primary information frames manipulation with Pandas

Whereas not too long ago a brand new library to control information frames referred to as “Polars” began circulating, right here we’ll see some information manipulation with Pandas which remains to be essentially the most used as of right now.

To start with, typically, we will create information frames by importing information from .xlsx or .cvs recordsdata. In Pandas we will do it like so:

import pandas as pd

# Import cvs file
my_dataframe = pd.read_csv('a_file.csv')

# Import xlsx
my_dataframe_2 = pd.read_excel('a_file_2.xlsx')

If we wish to create a knowledge body:

import pandas as pd

# Create a dictionary with various kinds of information
information = {
'Title': ['John', 'Alice', 'Bob'],
'Age': ['twenty-five', 30, 27],
'Metropolis': ['New York', 'London', 'Sydney'],
'Wage': [50000, 60000.50, 45000.75],
'Is_Employed': [True, True, False]

# Create the dataframe
df = pd.DataFrame(information)

That is the information body we’ve proven above. So, as we will see, we first create a dictionary, after which we convert it to a knowledge body with the strategy pd.DataFrame().

We’ve three potentialities to visualise a knowledge body. Suppose we’ve got a knowledge body referred to as df:

  1. The primary one is print(df).
  2. The second is df.head() that may present the primary 5 rows of our information body. In case we’ve got a knowledge body with numerous rows, we will present greater than the primary 5. For instance, df.head(20) reveals the primary 20.
  3. The third one is df.tail() that works precisely like head(), however this reveals the final rows.

On the facet of visualization, utilizing the above df, that is what df.head() reveals:

What df.head() reveals. Picture by Creator.

And that is what print(df) reveals:

What print(df) reveals. Picture by Creator.

Within the case of small information units like this one, the distinction is just a matter of style (I want head() as a result of it “reveals the tabularity” of information). However within the case of enormous information units, head() is manner a lot better. Strive it, and let me know!

Contemplate that Pandas is a really large library, that means it permits us to control tabular information in a wide range of methods, so it’d should be handled alone. Right here we wish to present simply the very fundamentals, so we’ll see how we will add and delete a column (the columns of a knowledge body are additionally referred to as “Pandas collection”).

Suppose we wish to add a column to the information body df we’ve seen above that’s telling us if persons are married or not. We are able to do it like so:

# Add marital standing
df["married"] = ["yes", "yes", "no"]

this is similar notation we used so as to add values to a dictionary.
Return again on the article and evaluate the 2 strategies.

And exhibiting the pinnacle we’ve got:

The info body df with the marital standing. Picture by Creator.

To delete one column:

# Delete the "Is_Employed" column
df = df.drop('Is_Employed', axis=1)

And we get:

The info body with out the column associated to employment information. Picture by Creator.

Notice that we have to use axis=1 as a result of right here we’re telling Pandas to take away columns and since a knowledge body is a two-dimensional information construction, axis=1 represents the vertical path.

As an alternative, if we wish to drop a row, we have to use axis=0. For instance, suppose we wish to delete the row related to the index 1 ( that’s the second row as a result of, once more, we begin counting from 0):

# Delete the second row 
df = df.drop(1, axis=0)

And we get:

The info body with out the second row. Picture by Creator.

Up to now, we’ve seen essentially the most used information buildings in Python. These will not be the one ones, however certainly essentially the most used.

Additionally, there is no such thing as a proper or flawed in utilizing one somewhat than one other: we simply want to grasp what information we have to retailer and use one of the best information construction for one of these process.

I hope this text helped you perceive the utilization of those information buildings and when to make use of them.

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