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# Pearson, Spearman and Kendall Correlation Coefficients, by Hand | by Antoine Soetewey | Sep, 2023

In statistics, a correlation is used to judge the connection between two variables.

In a earlier submit, we confirmed the right way to compute a correlation and perform a correlation test in R. On this submit, we illustrate the right way to compute the Pearson, Spearman, and Kendall correlation coefficients by hand and below two totally different eventualities (i.e., with and with out ties).

For instance the strategies with and with out ties, we take into account two totally different datasets, one with ties and one other with out ties.

For the illustrations of the eventualities with ties, suppose now we have the next pattern of measurement 5:

As we are able to see, there are some ties since there are two equivalent observations within the variable x.

For the eventualities which require no ties, we’ll take into account the next pattern of measurement 3:

The three commonest correlation strategies are:1

1. Pearson, used for 2 quantitative continuous variables which have a linear relationship
2. Spearman, used for 2 quantitative variables if the hyperlink is partially linear, or for one qualitative ordinal variable and one quantitative variable
3. Kendall, usually used for 2 qualitative ordinal variables

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